How Many Citizenships Can You Have?

two passports

How many citizenships can you have? Each country’s laws differ on whether they allow you to hold multiple citizenships. This article delves into the complexities of dual or multiple citizenships, highlighting the benefits and drawbacks of gaining additional passports.

Additionally, we provide a comprehensive list of countries that do and don’t allow dual citizenship, helping you navigate the varying regulations worldwide.

What Is Dual Citizenship or Dual Nationality?

Dual citizenship, or dual nationality, refers to when an individual is legally recognized as a citizen of two different countries, simultaneously holding passports from each. This status allows a person to enjoy the rights and privileges offered by both nations, such as the ability to live, work, and travel freely within these countries.

The term can also extend to multiple citizenship, indicating that an individual holds citizenship from more than two countries. This scenario usually arises through various circumstances, including birth in a country different from the parents’ nationality, marriage to a foreign citizen, naturalization while maintaining the original citizenship, or through specific Citizenship By Investment Programs offered by some countries.

Dual or multiple citizenships can offer numerous advantages, including greater mobility, economic opportunities, and social benefits. However, it also comes with responsibilities and legal considerations, as individuals must navigate the laws and requirements of each country of their citizenship, including taxation, military service, and more.

How Many Citizenships Can You Have?

The question of ‘how many citizenships you can have’ varies from country to country, as international law sets no limits on the number of citizenships an individual may hold. Instead, the legislation of each specific country is the determining factor. Consequently, acquiring dual or multiple citizenships depends largely on the statutes and regulations of your home country and any countries from which you seek additional citizenship.

Nations adopt diverse stances on dual or multiple citizenships, driven by considerations such as diaspora relations, national security, and policy objectives. While some countries embrace dual or multiple citizenships to foster connections with citizens living abroad, others impose restrictions due to loyalty concerns or legal complexities.

In several European countries that support dual citizenship, individuals can gain the right to live, work, and study through naturalization. Expats in Europe may initially receive temporary residence status, which can evolve into permanent residency and, ultimately, full citizenship after living in the country for a specific period of time.

Which Countries Allow Multiple Citizenships?

While many countries are agreeable to second citizenship acquisition, not every country permits dual or multiple citizenship. Although many European, Northern American, and Asian countries allow their nationals to apply for multiple citizenship. Some other countries may not recognize dual citizenship and enforce restrictions on it. Here’s an overview of those countries that do and don’t permit multiple citizenships across the globe.

Countries that Allow Dual Citizenships

  • Albania
  • Angola
  • Armenia
  • Australia
  • Belgium
  • Burundi
  • Cabo Verde
  • Ivory Coast
  • Cyprus
  • Denmark
  • Fiji
  • Finland
  • France
  • Gabon
  • Gambia
  • Germany
  • Ghana
  • Greece
  • Hungary
  • Iceland
  • Portugal
  • Iraq
  • Ireland
  • Israel
  • Italy
  • Kenya
  • Kosovo
  • Latvia
  • Lebanon
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg
  • Mali
  • Malta
  • Moldova
  • Morocco
  • Mozambique
  • New Zealand
  • Niger
  • Nigeria
  • North Macedonia
  • Norway
  • Philippines
  • Romania
  • Russia
  • Rwanda
  • Sao Tome and Principe
  • Senegal
  • Serbia
  • Sierra Leone
  • Slovakia
  • Spain 
  • Sri Lanka
  • Sudan
  • Sweden
  • Switzerland
  • Syria
  • Czechia
  • Tonga
  • Tunisia
  • Uganda
  • United Kingdom
  • United States of America
  • Vanuatu
  • Zambia

Countries that Do Not Allow Dual Citizenships

  • Afghanistan
  • Andorra
  • Austria
  • Azerbaijan
  • Bahrain
  • Belarus
  • China
  • Comoros
  • Djibouti
  • Eritrea
  • Estonia
  • Ethiopia
  • Georgia
  • Guinea
  • India 
  • Iran
  • Indonesia
  • Japan
  • Kazakhstan
  • Kiribati
  • North Korea
  • Kuwait
  • Laos
  • Lesotho
  • Liberia
  • Libya
  • Liechtenstein
  • Malaysia
  • Montenegro
  • Madagascar
  • Maldives
  • Malawi
  • Marshall Islands
  • Mauritania
  • Micronesia
  • Monaco
  • Mongolia
  • Mozambique
  • Myanmar, Burma
  • Nepal
  • Netherlands
  • Norway
  • Oman
  • Palau
  • Qatar
  • Rwanda
  • San Marino
  • Sao Tome & Principe
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Singapore
  • Slovakia
  • Suriname
  • Swaziland
  • Tanzania
  • Togo
  • Ukraine
  • United
  • Uzbekistan
  • Vanuatu 

Advantages and Disadvantages of Dual Citizenship

Advantages of Dual Citizenship

  • Broader Rights and Privileges: Enjoy the rights and privileges of both countries, including healthcare, education, and legal rights.
  • Increased Mobility: Dual citizens benefit from visa-free travel to more countries, leveraging the travel agreements of both nations.
  • Employment Flexibility: You can work in either country without a work permit, which expands your career opportunities.
  • Political Participation: The privilege of voting and participating in the political processes of two countries.
  • Property Ownership: The ability to own and manage properties in both countries, with less legal hassles.
  • Cultural and Social Benefits: Access to two cultural and social heritages, enriching personal and family life.

Disadvantages of Dual Citizenship

  • Legal Obligations: Subject to the laws and regulations of both countries, which can sometimes conflict or double the complexity of legal compliance.
  • Tax Implications: There is potential for dual taxation on global income, though many countries have treaties to prevent double taxation. Understanding tax obligations in both countries is crucial before proceeding with gaining your second citizenship.
  • Military Service: In countries with mandatory military service, dual citizens might be obliged to serve, potentially complicating commitments in the other country.
  • Government Employment Restrictions: Some government positions, especially those requiring security clearance, may not be open to dual citizens due to perceived conflicts of interest.
  • Complexity in Legal Processes: The process of acquiring and maintaining dual citizenship can be complex, expensive, and time-consuming, requiring a thorough understanding of both countries’ immigration laws.
  • Potential for Renunciation Issues: In extreme cases, activities in one country could revoke citizenship in the other, especially if those activities are seen as incompatible with the other country’s laws or interests.

A picture of a map of the world.

Source: Unsplash

How to Obtain Dual and Multiple Citizenships

Depending on your country of origin, obtaining dual citizenship can be achieved in several ways. Here are some typical methods for obtaining your second citizenship and passport and broadening your horizons.

Acquire Citizenship Through Citizenship By Investment Programs

For those who wish to acquire dual or multiple citizenship, making investments can be an excellent pathway toward gaining this privilege. Many countries in the European Union, such as Malta and Cyprus, provide a pathway to citizenship through investing in the country to boost their economy. These Citizenship By Investment Programs are often referred to as Golden Visas. Caribbean countries such as Dominica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Grenada, Saint Lucia, and Antigua and Barbuda also provide investors with a Citizenship By Investment Program.

Malta Citizenship By Investment Options:

  1. Contribute to the National Development and Social Economic Fund:
    • Option A: For citizenship after 36 months of residency, the primary applicant is required to contribute USD 648,000 to the fund, with an additional contribution of USD 54,000 for each dependent.
    • Option B: For citizenship after 12 months of residency, the primary applicant must contribute USD 810,000 to the fund, plus USD 54,000 for each additional dependent.
  2. Invest in Real Estate:
    • Option A: Make a minimum investment of USD 756,000 in approved real estate.
    • Option B: Engage in a rental agreement with an annual minimum rent of USD 17,280.
  3. Donation:
    • Commit a minimum of USD 10,800 to a recognized NGO.

Dominica Citizenship By Investment:

  1. Economic Diversification Fund (EDF):
    • Single applicant: A donation of USD 100,000 is required.
    • Couple: A contribution of USD 150,000 is necessary.
    • Family Unit: For the main applicant, spouse, and two dependents (siblings not included), a donation of USD 175,000 is required.
  2. Real Estate Investment:
    • An investment of at least USD 200,000 in designated real estate is needed to qualify.

Saint Kitts and Nevis Citizenship By Investment:

  1. Real Estate Investment:
    • Condominium Unit: A minimum investment of USD 400,000, to be held for 7 years.
    • Approved Hotel or Resort Shares: Invest at least USD 400,000.
    • Private Home: A minimum investment of USD 800,000, with a 7-year holding period.
  2. Public Benefit Option:
    • USD 250,000 to a government-approved public benefactor project.
  3. Sustainable Island State Contribution (SISC) :
    • Single Applicant: A contribution of at least USD 350,000 to the SISC.
    • Main Applicant with Spouse or Dependent: At least USD 400,000 to the SISC.
    • Family Option: Contribute USD 450,000 to the SISC for a main applicant with a spouse and two dependents or for a main applicant with three dependents.

Grenadian Citizenship By Investment:

  • National Transformation Fund (NTF)
    • Single Applicant: A donation of USD 150,000 to the National Transformation Fund is required.
    • Family of Four or Fewer: A contribution of USD 200,000 to the National Transformation Fund is necessary.
    • Additional Dependents: For each extra dependent, an additional USD 25,000 must be donated to the National Transformation Fund.
  • Real Estate Investment:
    • Shared Investment: Invest at least USD 220,000 in shares of approved real estate projects, such as villas, hotels, or resorts.
    • Direct Property Acquisition: Purchase property valued at a minimum of USD 350,000 and retain ownership for 5 years.

Saint Lucian Citizenship By Investment:

  • National Economic Fund:
    • Main Applicant: A minimum contribution of USD 100,000 to the National Economic Fund is required.
    • Main Applicant and Spouse: A contribution of USD 140,000 to the National Economic Fund is necessary.
    • Family of Up to Four: Contribute USD 150,000 to the National Economic Fund.
    • Additional Dependents: An extra USD 25,000 is required for each additional dependent.
  • Real Estate Investment:
    • Invest at least USD 200,000 in approved real estate, maintaining the investment for 5 years.
  • Approved Enterprise Project:
    • Individual Investment: The main applicant must invest a minimum of USD 3.5 million in a government-sanctioned project, creating at least 3 full-time jobs.
    • Joint Investment: Applicants can collectively invest USD 6 million (with each contributing at least USD 1 million) in the same project, provided it results in the creation of 6 new full-time jobs.
  • Government Bond Investment:
    • A minimum investment of USD 300,000 in non-yielding government bonds, to be held for 5 years.

Antigua and Barbuda Citizenship By Investment:

  • National Development Fund:
    • Family of Four or Fewer: A donation of USD 100,000 to the National Development Fund is required.
    • Family of Five or More: Contribute USD 125,000 to the National Development Fund.
  • The University of the West Indies Fund (UWI):
    • Family of Six or Less: Donate USD 150,000 to the UWI Fund. This includes a one-year, tuition-only scholarship at UWI for one family member.
  • Real Estate Investment:
    • Single Investment: Invest USD 400,000 in approved real estate, maintaining the investment for 5 years.
    • Joint Investment: Each applicant invests USD 200,000 in real estate, holding the investment for 5 years in collaboration with another applicant.
  • Business Investment:
    • Individual Business Purchase: Acquire an approved business valued at a minimum of USD 1.5 million.
    • Collective Business Contribution: Together with other investors, contribute at least USD 400,000 each to an approved business, reaching a total investment of USD 5 million.

Entitlement to Citizenship by Birth

To acquire your second citizenship, you can be born within the country’s borders – an entitlement generally accepted around the world referred to as jus soli or “citizenship by birth on a nation’s soil”. For instance, both the United States, Canada, and a variety of Latin American countries confer citizenship to those born within their borders.

Countries including Australia, Germany, the UK, France, Ireland, New Zealand, and South Africa have shifted from the traditional jus soli ruling. These countries now require that at least one of a child’s parents be a citizen (jus sanguinis) or a long-term legal resident for them to acquire citizenship by birth.

Achieving Citizenship Through Marriage

Obtaining citizenship through marriage is legally referred to as jus matrimonii, and many nations offer the privilege of citizenship to those partnered with their citizens. By marrying a person born in another country, in most cases, you will automatically earn that nation’s passport and citizenship.

As demonstrated in the United States of America, once a citizen’s spouse is given access to the Green Card, they are eligible for citizenship after just three years from the date of marriage. Furthermore, a person can gain UK citizenship if their significant other is already a citizen of the United Kingdom. But to guarantee that the marriage isn’t fabricated, the involved nation has every right to take whatever legal measures are necessary for confirmation.

Obtaining Citizenship Through Naturalization

Naturalization is a widely used approach to gaining secondary citizenship, which can lead to dual or multiple nationalities in another country.

After having lived for an extended period of time in the country, many individuals are eligible to apply for citizenship by taking advantage of the laws of naturalization.

Depending on which nation you reside in, the duration requirements for permanent residency can vary. See below for more information on the criteria you must meet to qualify for naturalization:

The Criteria You Must Meet to be Eligible for Naturalization:

Long-term residency

Staying in the country for a significant span of time is required to obtain citizenship. Each country has a different length of stay requirement before you can qualify for naturalization. Argentina, for example, requires its citizens to live there for 2 years, whereas Portugal and the United Kingdom ask that residents remain in their nation for at least 5 years. To qualify for Greek citizenship, you must live there for 7 years to qualify for naturalization. On the other hand, some countries, such as the UAE, grant fully-fledged citizenship after a person has resided within its borders for 30 or more consecutive years.

Clear criminal history

A clear criminal history is a requirement to qualify for any citizenship options. It must be established in the country of your citizenship, as well as all countries where you possess residence permits or citizenship.

Local knowledge requirements

Understanding the native language and culture of a country is often required for entrance. In Greece, applicants must first demonstrate their proficiency in Greek and a sound understanding of its history to receive entry and citizenship.

A picture of three passports lined up next to each other.

Source: Unsplash

How to Choose Which Country to Obtain a Second Citizenship In

The journey to acquiring second citizenship begins with defining your objectives for expanding your passport portfolio. What do you hope to gain from your second citizenship? Do you want to travel between two specific countries with ease?

In crafting your passport portfolio strategy, it’s crucial to consider which passports will best align with your long-term needs and aspirations. A well-thought-out portfolio enhances your global mobility and access to opportunities and minimizes any potential drawbacks associated with dual citizenship. Some factors you may want to consider when looking for a second citizenship include:

  • Global Mobility: Evaluate visa-free travel access and the ease of movement that each passport offers, enhancing your international flexibility.
  • Career Opportunities: Consider the professional doors each citizenship may open, including work rights and business prospects in those countries and their global networks.
  • Educational Access: Look at the quality of education and the availability of educational opportunities for you and your family.
  • Quality of Life: Assess the living standards, healthcare, safety, and overall lifestyle each country provides.
  • Tax Implications: Understand the tax obligations and advantages, ensuring your portfolio optimizes your financial position without undue burden.
  • Cultural and Social Integration: Consider your personal connection and ease of integrating into the society of each country.

Ultimately, selecting countries for your passport portfolio is a deeply personal decision that should align with your individual goals, values, and lifestyle preferences. It’s advisable to consult with legal and financial experts specializing in dual citizenship to navigate the complexities and make informed choices.

Multiple Citizenships – Take Advantage of Dual (Or Many) Nationalities

Holding dual or multiple citizenships offers a wealth of benefits. Choosing the right country for you can unlock visa-free access to numerous destinations, providing unparalleled flexibility and the freedom to live and work in various places with minimal constraints.

Beyond travel convenience, possessing multiple citizenships can also open doors to unique educational and economic benefits, opportunities not readily available to individuals with only one nationality. By fully understanding the nuances of holding multiple citizenships, you can leverage your international identity, tapping into a broad spectrum of global opportunities.


Can I have three citizenships in the USA?

While the US legislation does not promote it, a person can have up to 3 citizenships in the United States.

What are the benefits of multiple citizenships?

Having multiple citizenships can offer many benefits. It can provide you access to more countries without having to obtain a visa each time and grant you the right to live and work in any of those countries without restrictions. Also, dual citizenship offers protection if your country of birth experiences political unrest or instability. Lastly, multiple citizenships may qualify you for certain educational, economic, and tax advantages.

How many passports can you have from different countries?

The number of passports you can have from different countries depends on the policies and laws of each country. Some countries allow up to four passports, while others only allow one. It is important to check with each country’s embassy or consulate for their unique ruling regarding dual citizenship.

How many citizenships can you have in the UK?

In the United Kingdom, it is possible to hold multiple citizenships. This means you can have more than one nationality and be a citizen of two (or more) countries.

What is the master nationality rule?

Dual citizenship can be defined as an individual holding two or more nationalities, with the master nation possessing the authority to provide diplomatic aid regarding international law. For instance, if a British citizen resides in a location where dual citizenship isn’t permitted, the UK government will not offer assistance. It’s important to confirm with your local government authorities what rules apply to seeking dual citizenship.


"*" indicates required fields

Rihab Saad

Managing Director
Next Generation Equity

Share this post